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英国驻华使馆气候变化参赞康大卫

 
 
 

日志

 
 

Better City, Better Life  

2010-07-20 11:36:21|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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今天的博客由英国驻上海领事馆气候变化处James Rawlins友情提供。

如果此刻你在上海,世博会绝不会离你太远。在我刚到中国的一年半里,几乎每条道路都在被修缮,每个公园都在变得越来越漂亮,所有这一切,都在期待5月1日世博会开幕这个大日子的到来。世博会到现在已经进行了两个多月,截至目前,取得了巨大的成功。游客的数量好像每周都会达到一个新的高峰,许多场馆都非常引人入胜。

本届世博会的主题是“城市,让生活更美好”。一边思考这个主题,一边看着上海这个世界上真正最具活力的城市在我眼前发展、变化,,让人觉得非常有趣。什么使一个城市适宜生活?上海在世博会之前发生的改变让人们生活更美好吗?许多变化正发挥了这样的作用。地铁系统的扩展、黄浦江沿岸的工业区被改建成了公共开放区等都为人们带来了美好的生活。世博园本身也将被综合利用开发,这将与世博主题中的可持续发展原则 相契合。

我希望上海以及中国其他城市的政府(乃至世界各地)不再重复我们西方国家在规划及建造城市时所犯的错误。这些错误中,有些很难被消除。比如,我们注入大量的资金来建造大楼,使得重新规划的成本过高而无法实行。如果你建造了一座糟糕的建筑,你至少要忍受它50年。如果你建造了糟糕的交通系统,你可能要忍受更长的时间。今天我们做的决定将影响未来我们以可持续方式生活的能力。在最近的一次会议上,我听到一位专家提出这样的问题:“我们到底是为了人来建设城市,还是为了车子?”这是一个很重要的问题。下次如果你在高峰时间被堵在路上,也许也可以考虑一下。世博会充满了可持续与环境友好型技术的范例。有电动公交车、大型太阳能装置,而且在城市最佳实践区,你可以看到来自全世界的可持续城市发展。来世博会参观可以了解我们对环境造成了哪些影响,如何减少这些影响,这是非常好的。今天早上,我像往常一样步行上班,途中看到了静安公园的一个“世博会青年周展览”。那里有关于风能和其他可再生能源以及低碳技术的宣传板。这些展览有利于提升人们的意识。但是上海所有在建的开发项目中却鲜有接近高能效、高可持续性的最佳实践项目。所以,我们在像世博会这样的活动中所说的和我们实际上仅仅在世博园区几公里外所做的是有很大差别的,我们浪费了很多减排低碳的机会。

我并不是说这种情况仅发生在中国。这是一个世界范围内的普遍现象,包括英国、欧洲大陆国家和美国。它发生在哪里并不重要,重要的是:如果我们不能只是在微小范围内展示这些低碳理念,却在大范围继续高碳排放、高能耗建筑和基础建设的建造。否则毫无疑问,数十年后我们将使自己走上严重资源短缺和危险气候变化的道路。

If you live in Shanghai at the moment, the Expo is never far from your mind. During my first 18 months living here, there hardly seemed to be a road that wasn’t being excavated, or a park that wasn’t being smartened up, all in anticipation of the big day on May 1. Expo has now been going for a little over two months, and so far it’s a tremendous success. Expo has now been going for a little over two months, and seems to be a tremendous success. Visitor numbers seem to reach new heights each week, and many of the pavilions are genuinely spectacular. 

The theme of Expo is ‘Better City, Better Life’. It’s been interesting to reflect on that theme while watching the city – surely the most dynamic city in the world – grow and evolve before my eyes. What makes a city a good place to live? Are the changes taking place here in Shanghai ahead of Expo making people’s lives better? Undoubtedly many of them are. The metro system has been extended. Formerly industrial areas of the riverfront have been turned into open public spaces. The Expo site itself will become a mixed use development that will hopefully embody the principles of sustainability brought to mind by the Expo theme.

I hope that Shanghai, and city governments across the rest of China (and indeed the wider world), will not make the same mistakes that we have made in the West in planning and building our cities. Some of those mistakes are very hard to undo. Huge amounts of capital get tied up in buildings, making them too expensive to replace. If you build a bad building, you are stuck with it for 50 years. If you build a bad transport system, you’re probably stuck with it for a lot longer. The decisions we make today will affect our ability to live in a sustainable way in the future. At a recent conference I heard a speaker pose the question “are we going to build our cities for cars, or for people?” It’s an important question, and one worth reflecting on next time you are sat in traffic gridlock at rush hour.

The Expo is full of examples of sustainable and environmentally friendly technology. There are electric buses, a large solar power installation, and in the Urban Best Practice Area, you can see sustainable urban developments from around the world. Visitors to Expo can learn a lot about our impact on the environment, and how to reduce it, and that’s great. Just this morning on my walk to work I walked through an Expo Youth Week exhibition in Jing An park. There were billboards about wind power, and other renewable and low carbon technologies. Again, it’s all good for raising awareness.  But amongst all the developments currently under construction in Shanghai, few are likely to be anywhere near best practise for energy efficiency and sustainability.  So in addition to the disconnect between what is on show at events like Expo, and what is happening just a few kilometres outside the Expo park, there is also a huge opportunity being wasted.

I’m not saying this is just happening in China. It’s happening all over the world including in the UK, EU and US. Where is not important. The point is that if all we do is to showcase these ideas on a tiny scale, while at the same time we lock in high carbon, resource hungry buildings and infrastructure for decades, we’re going to put ourselves firmly on a path to serious resource shortages and dangerous climate change.

 

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